# Fix Python – Shift elements in a numpy array

## Question

This question contains its own answer at the bottom. Use preallocated arrays.

Following-up from this question years ago, is there a canonical “shift” function in numpy? I don’t see anything from the documentation.

Here’s a simple version of what I’m looking for:

``````def shift(xs, n):
if n >= 0:
return np.r_[np.full(n, np.nan), xs[:-n]]
else:
return np.r_[xs[-n:], np.full(-n, np.nan)]
``````

Using this is like:

``````In [76]: xs
Out[76]: array([ 0.,  1.,  2.,  3.,  4.,  5.,  6.,  7.,  8.,  9.])

In [77]: shift(xs, 3)
Out[77]: array([ nan,  nan,  nan,   0.,   1.,   2.,   3.,   4.,   5.,   6.])

In [78]: shift(xs, -3)
Out[78]: array([  3.,   4.,   5.,   6.,   7.,   8.,   9.,  nan,  nan,  nan])
``````

This question came from my attempt to write a fast rolling_product yesterday. I needed a way to “shift” a cumulative product and all I could think of was to replicate the logic in `np.roll()`.

So `np.concatenate()` is much faster than `np.r_[]`. This version of the function performs a lot better:

``````def shift(xs, n):
if n >= 0:
return np.concatenate((np.full(n, np.nan), xs[:-n]))
else:
return np.concatenate((xs[-n:], np.full(-n, np.nan)))
``````

An even faster version simply pre-allocates the array:

``````def shift(xs, n):
e = np.empty_like(xs)
if n >= 0:
e[:n] = np.nan
e[n:] = xs[:-n]
else:
e[n:] = np.nan
e[:n] = xs[-n:]
return e
``````

The above proposal is the answer. Use preallocated arrays.

Now we will see solution for issue: Shift elements in a numpy array

For those who want to just copy and paste the fastest implementation of shift, there is a benchmark and conclusion(see the end). In addition, I introduce fill_value parameter and fix some bugs.

### Benchmark

``````import numpy as np
import timeit

# enhanced from IronManMark20 version
def shift1(arr, num, fill_value=np.nan):
arr = np.roll(arr,num)
if num < 0:
arr[num:] = fill_value
elif num > 0:
arr[:num] = fill_value
return arr

# use np.roll and np.put by IronManMark20
def shift2(arr,num):
arr=np.roll(arr,num)
if num<0:
np.put(arr,range(len(arr)+num,len(arr)),np.nan)
elif num > 0:
np.put(arr,range(num),np.nan)
return arr

# use np.pad and slice by me.
def shift3(arr, num, fill_value=np.nan):
l = len(arr)
if num < 0:
arr = np.pad(arr, (0, abs(num)), mode='constant', constant_values=(fill_value,))[:-num]
elif num > 0:
arr = np.pad(arr, (num, 0), mode='constant', constant_values=(fill_value,))[:-num]

return arr

# use np.concatenate and np.full by chrisaycock
def shift4(arr, num, fill_value=np.nan):
if num >= 0:
return np.concatenate((np.full(num, fill_value), arr[:-num]))
else:
return np.concatenate((arr[-num:], np.full(-num, fill_value)))

# preallocate empty array and assign slice by chrisaycock
def shift5(arr, num, fill_value=np.nan):
result = np.empty_like(arr)
if num > 0:
result[:num] = fill_value
result[num:] = arr[:-num]
elif num < 0:
result[num:] = fill_value
result[:num] = arr[-num:]
else:
result[:] = arr
return result

arr = np.arange(2000).astype(float)

def benchmark_shift1():
shift1(arr, 3)

def benchmark_shift2():
shift2(arr, 3)

def benchmark_shift3():
shift3(arr, 3)

def benchmark_shift4():
shift4(arr, 3)

def benchmark_shift5():
shift5(arr, 3)

benchmark_set = ['benchmark_shift1', 'benchmark_shift2', 'benchmark_shift3', 'benchmark_shift4', 'benchmark_shift5']

for x in benchmark_set:
number = 10000
t = timeit.timeit('%s()' % x, 'from __main__ import %s' % x, number=number)
print '%s time: %f' % (x, t)
``````

benchmark result:

``````benchmark_shift1 time: 0.265238
benchmark_shift2 time: 0.285175
benchmark_shift3 time: 0.473890
benchmark_shift4 time: 0.099049
benchmark_shift5 time: 0.052836
``````

### Conclusion

shift5 is winner! It’s OP’s third solution.

This question is answered By – gzc