Fix Python – What’s the fastest way of checking if a point is inside a polygon in python

Question

I found two main methods to look if a point belongs inside a polygon. One is using the ray tracing method used here, which is the most recommended answer, the other is using matplotlib `path.contains_points` (which seems a bit obscure to me). I will have to check lots of points continuously. Does anybody know if any of these two is more recommendable than the other or if there are even better third options?

UPDATE:

I checked the two methods and matplotlib looks much faster.

``````from time import time
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.path as mpltPath

# regular polygon for testing
lenpoly = 100
polygon = [[np.sin(x)+0.5,np.cos(x)+0.5] for x in np.linspace(0,2*np.pi,lenpoly)[:-1]]

# random points set of points to test
N = 10000
points = np.random.rand(N,2)

# Ray tracing
def ray_tracing_method(x,y,poly):

n = len(poly)
inside = False

p1x,p1y = poly[0]
for i in range(n+1):
p2x,p2y = poly[i % n]
if y > min(p1y,p2y):
if y <= max(p1y,p2y):
if x <= max(p1x,p2x):
if p1y != p2y:
xints = (y-p1y)*(p2x-p1x)/(p2y-p1y)+p1x
if p1x == p2x or x <= xints:
inside = not inside
p1x,p1y = p2x,p2y

return inside

start_time = time()
inside1 = [ray_tracing_method(point[0], point[1], polygon) for point in points]
print("Ray Tracing Elapsed time: " + str(time()-start_time))

# Matplotlib mplPath
start_time = time()
path = mpltPath.Path(polygon)
inside2 = path.contains_points(points)
print("Matplotlib contains_points Elapsed time: " + str(time()-start_time))
``````

which gives,

``````Ray Tracing Elapsed time: 0.441395998001
Matplotlib contains_points Elapsed time: 0.00994491577148
``````

Same relative difference was obtained one using a triangle instead of the 100 sides polygon. I will also check shapely since it looks a package just devoted to these kind of problems

Now we will see solution for issue: What’s the fastest way of checking if a point is inside a polygon in python

You can consider shapely:

``````from shapely.geometry import Point
from shapely.geometry.polygon import Polygon

point = Point(0.5, 0.5)
polygon = Polygon([(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 1), (1, 0)])
print(polygon.contains(point))
``````

From the methods you’ve mentioned I’ve only used the second, `path.contains_points`, and it works fine. In any case depending on the precision you need for your test I would suggest creating a numpy bool grid with all nodes inside the polygon to be True (False if not). If you are going to make a test for a lot of points this might be faster (although notice this relies you are making a test within a “pixel” tolerance):

``````from matplotlib import path
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np

first = -3
size  = (3-first)/100
xv,yv = np.meshgrid(np.linspace(-3,3,100),np.linspace(-3,3,100))
p = path.Path([(0,0), (0, 1), (1, 1), (1, 0)])  # square with legs length 1 and bottom left corner at the origin
flags = p.contains_points(np.hstack((xv.flatten()[:,np.newaxis],yv.flatten()[:,np.newaxis])))
grid = np.zeros((101,101),dtype='bool')
grid[((xv.flatten()-first)/size).astype('int'),((yv.flatten()-first)/size).astype('int')] = flags

xi,yi = np.random.randint(-300,300,100)/100,np.random.randint(-300,300,100)/100
vflag = grid[((xi-first)/size).astype('int'),((yi-first)/size).astype('int')]
plt.imshow(grid.T,origin='lower',interpolation='nearest',cmap='binary')
plt.scatter(((xi-first)/size).astype('int'),((yi-first)/size).astype('int'),c=vflag,cmap='Greens',s=90)
plt.show()
``````

, the results is this:

This question is answered By – armatita