Fix Python – How can I percent-encode URL parameters in Python?

Question

Asked By – Paul Tarjan

If I do

url = "http://example.com?p=" + urllib.quote(query)
  1. It doesn’t encode / to %2F (breaks OAuth normalization)
  2. It doesn’t handle Unicode (it throws an exception)

Is there a better library?

Now we will see solution for issue: How can I percent-encode URL parameters in Python?


Answer

Python 2

From the documentation:

urllib.quote(string[, safe])

Replace special characters in string
using the %xx escape. Letters, digits,
and the characters ‘_.-‘ are never
quoted. By default, this function is
intended for quoting the path section
of the URL.The optional safe parameter
specifies additional characters that
should not be quoted — its default
value is ‘/’

That means passing '' for safe will solve your first issue:

>>> urllib.quote('/test')
'/test'
>>> urllib.quote('/test', safe='')
'%2Ftest'

About the second issue, there is a bug report about it. Apparently it was fixed in Python 3. You can workaround it by encoding as UTF-8 like this:

>>> query = urllib.quote(u"Müller".encode('utf8'))
>>> print urllib.unquote(query).decode('utf8')
Müller

By the way, have a look at urlencode.

Python 3

In Python 3, the function quote has been moved to urllib.parse:

>>> import urllib.parse
>>> print(urllib.parse.quote("Müller".encode('utf8')))
M%C3%BCller
>>> print(urllib.parse.unquote("M%C3%BCller"))
Müller

This question is answered By – Nadia Alramli

This answer is collected from stackoverflow and reviewed by FixPython community admins, is licensed under cc by-sa 2.5 , cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0